To analyze the ac operation of a basic op-amp integrator circuit. What is the transfer function of this summing amplifier with 3 inputs? Figure 2. The "operational amplifier" has two differential inputs and very high gain. Connect the positive, negative, and output terminals of the op amp to the rest of the circuit. When you design your PCB, remember that an op-amp is analog. Op Amp 741 Inverting Amplifier Circuit, Simulation with output wave form and working Gallery of Electronic Circuits and projects, providing lot of DIY circuit diagrams, Robotics & Microcontroller Projects, Electronic development tools Op amp low pass filters are easy to design, especially when a Butterworth filter type is used as above. iv IDEALOPAMPCIRCUITS Figure1. As long as the op-amp gain is very large, the amplifier gain is determined by the external feedback resistor Rf and the input resistor Rin and not by op-amp parameters. At this point the op amp can drive its output to a negative current. The output voltage signal from an Operational Amplifier is the difference between the signals being applied to its two individual inputs. Inverting Opamp Amplifier. B. To evaluate the operation of an improved version of an op-amp integrator. OP Amp simulation in SPICE can be difficult especially in the open loop as you have to find the exact offset voltage before any kind of open loop test can be performed. Easy to MOSFET switching inductive load · Op-Amp inverting / non-inverting amplifier · RLC resonance ID, Name, Designator, Footprint, Quantity, Manufacturer Part, Manufacturer, Supplier, Supplier Part, Price, LCSC Assembly, Mounted. These are questions that I have asked at two periods in my life. That is perfectly linear. 9. A few things to try in CircuitLab DC sweep simulation To simulate an op amp in LTSpice, begin by opening the component library, searching for “UniversalOpamp2” and clicking ok. Only the Differential Op-Amp requires the input voltage value of V2, also in mVolts. 4. Comprehensive electronics, mechanics engineering educational software package where the high quality graphics are redrawn to reflect every user change. It is widely applied and Electronic and Electric Circuit Simulation . How do you expect the circuit to work with one input of the op amp left floating? Op amps can't work with one input open as the voltage is undefined. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab. 7k, click "OK" to confirm. Not so powerful simulator but ok for beginners; It has a lot of op-amps in library This is the Op-Amp circuit diagram with the detailed explanation of its working principles. Highlight of LTspice is much fast simulation of switching regulators with enhanced SPICE (compared to normal SPICE simulators). Follow the links to learn more and download the free tools or start using the web-based tools. If op amp manufacturers do not model Zo accurately, then the overall small-signal AC behavior of an op amp simulation model is incorrect and not reliable for stability analysis. The voltage gain decreases when RL is added because of the voltage drop across RO. Simulation time: 0 - Let's talk about SPICE models before running our simulation. Once the macro The op amp is modeled using a subcircuit named OPAMP1. For an ideal op amp, current at inverting input i- = 0, so i f must equal i 1. We perform this analysis using the procedure discussed earlier (in this chapter). The modern integrated circuit version is typified by the famous 741 op-amp. The present episode looks at practical ways of using such op-amps A virtual probe is added to the negative input of the op amp, I expect to see the triangel wave here. Note that this calculator can be used for either an inverting or a non-inverting op-amp configuration. 1. Enter the appropriate resistance values for Ra and Rf, in ohms, in the data entry boxes. 3-1, we will simulate PSRR+ and You need to connect Pin 3 to Pin 4 of the AD822 OP Amp. Some of the basic operation modes and application circuits are used by the circuit simulator. PartSim is a free and easy to use circuit simulator that includes a full SPICE simulation engine, web-based schematic capture tool, a graphical waveform viewer that runs in your web browser. Op-amps are the backbone of An op-amp can be used to amplify a voltage. In the category’s tab select Spice Macros. x. This model shows a standard inverting op-amp circuit. I will explain. 6. Simulations of OP AMPs 1. The first time was in my introductory circuits class and around that time I really didn’t care (beer was a priority). For example if the gain is 5, then the output voltage will be 5 times greater than the input voltage. Figure 3 Open loop output impedance test circuit Amplifier & Linear Tools. For the Falstad Circuit Simulation, CTRL+Click Inverting Amplifier Gain = -4. TINA-TI is a desktop downloadable electrical simulation tool. When you place a part like an opamp on a schematic, you get a default model called lm741 that's By combining the schematic diagram and simulation tools with the multifunction data Simulated Op Amp circuits have models that are based on the electrical Feb 25, 2018 Read about 'Problem creating opamp with spice data' on element14. Equating the above two expressions and integrating both sides of the result yields, In which the initial value of the output voltage is determined by the voltage on the capacitor at t=0, V o (0)=V f (0). To look at stability we need to look at the loop gain rather than the overall circuit gain. com. the µA709. This is the Op-Amp Feedback circuit diagram with the detailed explanation of its working principles. Most op amps fall short by about two volts so with a 12 volt supply, the output would be only ten volts. In simulating circuits that use one or more op amps, it is useful to utilize a macromodel to represent each Dec 8, 2016 Online circuit simulators are getting more popular day by day. As the Op-Amp block implements an ideal (i. Peavey Revalver. As C 1 charges through R 1, the voltage across R 1 falls, so the op-amp draws current from the input through R L. Powerful online circuit simulator and schematic editor. Once the configuration of an op-amp system is given, we can analyze that system to determine the output in terms of the inputs. An amplifier is anything that you put an electronic signal in, and you get out a larger version of the signal How does an op amp work? How do I use an op amp. The output is connected to its inverting input, and the signal source is connected to the non-inverting input. V £209 $199. More sophisticated designs using different types of filter can also be developed, although the mathematics does become more complicated and decisions need to be made about the optimum type of filter to be used. For a non-inverting op-amp, set V2 to 0V and use V1 as the input. 4-20mA Current Loop Tester using Op-Amp as Voltage to Current Converter Sensors are an integral part of any measurement system as they help in converting the real world parameters into electronic Op-Amps in different IC packages are available. 1. The IC op amp is here to stay; the latest generation op amps cover the frequency spec- Op Amp Simulator, free op amp simulator software downloads. Design with confidence using these free tools for amplifier and linear circuit design, simulation, and product evaluation. The operational amplifier, it's a type of amplifier. The electronic circuit simulator helps you to design the Op-Amp circuit Feedback is the signal from the Op Amp output, fed back to the input, through Rf. Vin : V: Vcc : V: f : KHz The op amp circuit is a powerful took in modern circuit applications. Two resistors plus an op-amp form a gain-of-10 amplifier. In addition to verifying the specifications of Example 6. Second, take aside, on a different simulation page, one of these subcircuits. The gain is given by -R2/R1, and with the values set to R1=1K Ohm and R2=10K Ohm, the 0. Modeling a practical op-amp illustrates the non-ideal characteristics. If an inverting op-amp is desired, set V1 to 0V and use V2 as the input. OP Amp) for Network Analysis & Lab Placing uA741 Op Amp Ignore Pins 1 and 5 of uA741. Commercial op amps first entered the market as integrated circuits in the mid-1960s, and by the early 1970s, they How to Use OrCAD Design and PSpice Simulator to Build an Op-Amp: This Instructable was created in fulfillment of the required coursework for the course Communications for Engineers at the University of South Florida. Run your guitar through one of these plugins and you’ll have hundreds of iconic guitar tones at your fingertips. NEW *OP* CODE & ALL POTION CRAFTING RECIPIES! | Robl ThnxCya Follow. Knowing the formulas for calculating the gain of op amps is crucial to having high-precision amplifier circuits. CircuitMod is an amazing circuit simulator software and can be very useful when used for study purposes, as it has pre-loaded circuits. Calculating the gain of an op amp is very important because many circuits such as audio amplifiers and volume control circuits need to utilize op amp gain in order to function correctly. It also has a pole at a fairly low frequency that causes the op amp’s gain to roll off, eventually reaching unity gain at some much higher frequency. Peavey's ReValver offers arguably the most detailed editing options of any software amp simulator. Thus the voltage at the output of this circuit at any time t Application Note Analog Circuit Design and Simulation with TINA-TI 2 Introduction TINATM is a Spice-based circuit simulation tool suitable for running in Microsoft Windows Operation system. I studied AC and DC wave forms and wanted to know if it is possible to use a DC 9 volt battery powered 741 op amp to "simulate" the AC sine wave (square wave) and send the signal to the computer, fooling it into thinking 6-10 volts is present and thus operating the transmission shift point correctly. The non-inverting amplifier does not change the polarity of its input voltage. Working of non-Inverting Op-amp Gain Calculator. LTspice gives access to over 200 op amp models, transistor models, MOSFET models etc. Explore electronics circuits and projects based on op-amp IC LM358. The op-amp greatly amplifies the difference between the two inputs, and outputs the result. e. Let me start by saying that i'm new to using simulation tools, so it's How to Use OrCAD Design and PSpice Simulator to Build an Op-Amp: This Instructable was created in fulfillment of the required coursework for the course Mar 26, 2009 Microchip's op amp SPICE macro models. Doctors monitor a person's electrocardiogram (ECG) in order to assess how the heart is functioning and can be used to diagnose a variety of A Single-Supply Op-Amp Circuit Collection 3 1 Introduction There have been many excellent collections of op-amp circuits in the past, but all of them focus exclusively on split-supply circuits. The result is a simple model requiring only a handful of components. The AD822 OP Amp needs 5 volts minimum. To fix this, you would make. So this path from output to non-inverting terminal is actually a negative feedback . used by the circuit simulator. Once problems are corrected using SPICE, then build and It is of course possible to feed the accurate circuit diagram of the opamp in the simulation, and then the simulation result will be more accurate, but take more Op-Amp Circuits: Simulations and Experiments [Sid Antoch] on Amazon. Differential Amplifier If op amp manufacturers do not model Zo accurately, then the overall small-signal AC behavior of an op amp simulation model is incorrect and not reliable for stability analysis. The equivalent circuit you have posted is very, very close to the optimum. A macromodel is based on the observed terminal characteristics of the op amp rather than on the modeling of every transistor in the op-amp internal circuit. This op amp needs a voltage supply range from 3. The positive input pin receives halve of that being either +7. Home > Tools > Op Amp Low Pass Butterworth Filter Calculator Op Amp Low Pass Butterworth Filter Calculator. Some multiple-section op-amps may exhibit extreme channel-channel interaction when used as comparators. 3-1. Simulations) · The LTSpice IV Simulator: Manual, methods and applications. 4-20mA Current Loop Tester using Op-Amp as Voltage to Current Converter Sensors are an integral part of any measurement system as they help in converting the real world parameters into electronic Gain = R f /R in. Application Note Analog Circuit Design and Simulation with TINA-TI 7 (2) Click the resistor icon and drag the resistor to a position horizontally aligned with the upper leg of the op amp, double-click on the resistor to open the parameter setting of it, editing to change the default value 1k to 4. Thankfully, it’s easy to verify that a model’s Zo matches the data sheet. The op-amp compares the output voltage across the load with the input voltage and increases its own output voltage with the value of V F. Figure 3 shows the recommended test circuit. Amps Vs. 3V supply. Compatibility with digital logic must be verified while using an op-amp as a comparator. 5V to 12V to operate so we will supply it with ± 5V AC voltage source. The term operational amplifier or "op-amp" refers to a class of high-gain DC coupled amplifiers with two inputs and a single output. simulate this circuit. The electronic circuit simulator helps you to design the Op-Amp circuit and to simulate it online for better understanding. With a native schematic editor to support wiring your circuit for simulation and the ability to import Pspice models, the tool gives you the flexibility to verify your design. Simulation Speed This is a simple demonstration of an op-amp. Vin : V: Vcc : V: f : KHz If you need to design a differential amplifier, here is a handy calculator. Offset Voltages OP Amps have very high differential gains and any small offset voltage can saturate an OP Amp to the positive or negative supply rails. To simulate integrator circuits using Electronics Workbench™ software running in a Macintosh™ or High current power op amp models are available with output currents up to 30 amps and high voltage op amp models cover a range from 500 volts to 2000 volts. The op amp represents high impedance, just as an inductor does. There has been a never-ending series of new op amps released each year since then, and their performance and reliability has improved to the point where present day op amps can be used for analog applications by anybody. 0 which is equivalent to Cadence PSPICE 15. This assumes you have SIMetrix, SIMetrix/SIMPLIS or our free demonstration program SIMetrix/SIMPLIS Elements installed. So the op amp portion would look like. Hello, and welcome to the TI Precision Labs supplement for Op Amp Input Offset Voltage, VOS, and Input Bias Current, IB. An amplifier is anything that you put an electronic signal in, and you get out a larger version of the signal I think we have covered this op-amp current-buffering circuit in adequate detail. (b)CircuitforExample2. The op amp designed in Example 6. This lab will walk through detailed calculations, SPICE simulations, and real world measurements that greatly help to reinforce the concepts established in the Op Amp VOS and IB lecture. A comparator is designed to produce well limited output voltages that easily interface with digital logic. The electronic circuit simulator helps you to design the Op-Amp Feedback circuit and to simulate it online for better understanding. 5V or -7. 3-1 and shown in Fig. 4: (a)CircuitforExample1. Op Amp 741 Inverting Amplifier Circuit, Simulation with output wave form and working Gallery of Electronic Circuits and projects, providing lot of DIY circuit diagrams, Robotics & Microcontroller Projects, Electronic development tools While an ideal op amp has infinite gain, a real op amp has very high, but finite DC gain. I'm on CircuitLab right now since I've got a student license, but I can't seem to find anything resembling an oscilloscope. Figure 3 Open loop output impedance test circuit The inverting (-) input of the op-amp forms a virtual ground because the op-amp tries to keep its two terminals at the same voltage. This tutorial will show you how to create a simple schematic and perform a transient analysis upon it. Using the Superposition Theorem, we will first leave just V1 in this circuit. In other words, an op-amps output signal is the difference between the two input signals as the input stage of an Operational Amplifier is in fact a differential amplifier as shown below. In the next article we will look at variations on this circuit that make it compatible with a wider variety of applications. 1V peak-to-peak input voltage is amplified to 1V peak-to-peak. This calculator is structured to aid in the design and testing of op-amplifier circuits. Super Simple Electrocardiogram (ECG) Circuit: Electrocardiography is the study of the electrical signals produced by the heart during the cardiac cycle. The output voltage cannot swing beyond the op-amp's high and low supply voltages (+15V and -15V in this case). Electric; Electronic; Tutorials; Simulations; Tutorial for op-amp Schmitt trigger simulation. Next Article in Series: How to Buffer an Op-Amp Output for Higher Current, Part 2 Without the knowledge of how operational amplifiers work in low-noise, high speed applications, circuit performance will suffer. where, A ol = open-loop voltage gain of op-amp Z o = internal output impedance of op-amp (without feedback) beta= attenuation of the feedback circuit The output impedance of both the non-inverting and inverting amplifier configurations is very low; in fact, it is almost zero in practical cases. 1 The Op-Amp Model. For an ideal Op Amp, we can consider that the input current in the non-inverting input is zero. Since the negative supply of the LM324 is ground, the output cannot drive lower than this. the non-inverting terminal is an inverting op-amp that introduces a negative sign. Buffer Opamp Amplifier. Since the PartSim is a free and easy to use circuit simulator that includes a full SPICE simulation engine, web-based schematic capture tool, a graphical waveform viewer Nov 13, 2011 Two resistors plus an op-amp form a gain-of-10 amplifier. ! So it looks like the uA741 model has the potential to be a reasonably accurate PSPICE op amp description. Hellmut, I have simulated your circuit, but it isn't possible to verify the correctness of the equivalent circuit that way. Ngspice is a fork of the famous SPICE circuit simulator, while Xyce is a SPICE compatible simulator developed by the Sandia National Laboratories. Based on this assumption, the analysis of all op-amp circuits is significantly simplified. Now consider the following typical op-amp circuits: Voltage follower (buffer) I'm playing around with some op-amp tutorials, trying to get a grip on how they work. Differential Amplifier Peavey ReValver MkIII. This tool determine the transfer function from a inverting / non-inverting amplifier circuit. . Mar 16, 2018 This series will provide a complete simulation test bench for op amps, covering every key op amp specification, how they impact application For CMRR and PSRR plots, you can use xf analysis. However, note that if the input and output resistances of the op-amp circuits are of interest as well, the full analysis shown previously is necessary. 1 The Op-Amp Model In simulating circuits that use one or more op amps, it is useful to utilize a macromodel to represent each op amp. The op-amp tries to keep its two input terminals at the same voltage, so as the non-inverting (+) input changes, the op-amp tries to output whatever voltage it can to get the inverting (-) input to the same voltage. Your layout should partition the op-amp circuitry in a separate section of the board. For a more detailed look inside, see the Basic Op Amp Model. Other power op amp models cover the range from 100 volts to 350 volts. infinite gain) device, this gain is achieved regardless of output load. 3. The frequency of operation, slew rate and voltage ranges are the key parameters to select the right Op-Amp. Delete the existing SIM model in the Models section by selecting it and clicking on Remove , and then confirm the deletion. Also you need to use a single-supply op amp that can operate with a 3. 3-3 is to be analyzed by SPICE to determine if the specifications are met. 2-1. Simulating an op amp . And use 4 AA batteries, instead of 2 AA batteries, this will make a 6 Volt power supply. An amp simulator (amp sim for short) is a plugin that imitates the sound of a guitar amp. In the simulator the op amp has a voltage supply of +15V and -15V, causing the output to flip between those two voltages. I'd like to build some of them to get a better grip on how they work. This pole is referred to as the dominant pole. MODEL DESCRIPTION Microchip’s op amp SPICE macro models were written and tested in Orcad's PSPICE 10. Simulator of simple circuits containing one ideal operational amplifier. - [Voiceover] We're gonna talk about the operational amplifier, or op-amp for short, and this is the workhorse of all analog electronics. Enter the input voltage value for V1 in mVolts. The OPA743 CMOS op amp is chosen by referring to the circuit application specification. (*) PySpice is licensed under GPLv3 therms. Starting with Intersil's customized op amp models and products, users can modify their design, and then do an online simulation to test the stability of the design by using such tools as ac analysis, transient pulse and transient sine simulations, he said. • Set up your testbench sources for the supplies (of course), but also a source representing the common Mar 22, 2018 Going through the simulation process can bring more confidence to your designs. It does not explain how to use the circuit simulator but will give the user a better understanding how Connect the positive, negative, and output terminals of the op amp to the rest of the In this simulation it is clear to see that the input voltage varies between -5V used by the circuit simulator. 7 First, split your circuit into small subcircuits, like a one op amp circuit. Design filters with actual op amps; View filter performance in real time; User- specified ADIsimPE Linear and Mixed-Signal Circuit Simulator – Personal Edition. 2 Comprehensive electronics, mechanics engineering educational software package where the high quality graphics are redrawn to reflect every user change. This is the Op-Amp circuit diagram with the detailed explanation of its working principles. Some of the general characteristics of the IC version are: The opening episode of this ‘op-amp’ series described the basic operating principles of conventional voltage-differencing op-amps (typified by the 741 type), and showed some basic circuit configurations in which they can be used. For example:- 741 has single Op-Amp and LM 324, LM 339 have 4 Op-Amps each. Intersil's iSim for operational amplifiers tool is free to registered users. This makes the circuit a Current-To-Voltage converter. I am no expert in analogue electronic’s circuit design, however, I know a little which I would love to share with you folks. • Subcircuits: circuit block referenced as a single element. You can put together basic op amp circuits to build mathematical models that predict complex, real-world behavior. It is intended for beginner users. 1, 12, V2,V3, HDR1X2, 2. To measure the double integration of a square wave. For an ideal op-amp, the inverting amplifier gain is given simply by . Microchip's op amp SPICE macro models. A collection of SPICE simulation models for Analog Devices' products. 2. For equal resistors, it has a gain of -1, and is used in digital circuits as an inverting buffer. Although its voltage gain is 1 or unity, it has high current gain, high input impedance and low output impedance. This non-inverting op-amp gain calculator calculates the gain for non-inverting op-amp according to the below equation, where R in is the input resistor and R f is the feedback This simulation software is considered as one of the best freeware available. As a result, the voltage drop V F is compensated and the circuit behaves very nearly as an ideal ( super ) diode with V F = 0 V. Design of op-amp circuits. TINATM is able to precisely simulate analog circuits and also the switch-mode power supply circuits. A unity gain buffer amplifier is implemented using an opamp in a negative feedback configuration. This continues as the capacitor charges, and eventually the op-amp has an input and output close to virtual ground because the lower end of R 1 is connected to ground. Without the knowledge of how operational amplifiers work in low-noise, high speed applications, circuit performance will suffer. However, unless we tear into the internals of the mathematical description or do Tutorial 2: Creating a Schematic and Running a Simulation. The device parameters to be used are those of Tables 3. Since 2002, our products have served diverse a pplications that include, among many others: The op amp circuit will be unstable if the output is fed back to the input in phase and with gain. Create this circuit and Save the schematic And the simulation Op Amp Simulator Freeware Electronics Mech Maths and Computing v. Willy describes the symbol and properties of an op-amp. Should an OpAmp configured like inverter work when the Op Amp SPICE Simulation. Click the down arrow on the Add button in the Models List section to display a list of model-types, and select Simulation from the list. This non-inverting op-amp gain calculator calculates the gain for non-inverting op-amp according to the below equation, where R in is the input resistor and R f is the feedback Calculating the gain of an op amp is very important because many circuits such as audio amplifiers and volume control circuits need to utilize op amp gain in order to function correctly. As you'd expect, you can mix and match different amps, speaker cabinets and effects; but if you want too, you can alter the internal design of the amps themselves, even to the extent of swapping out individual electrical components such as So the op amp portion would look like. Download Operational amplifier simulator for free. Since no current flows into the op-amp inputs, the current V1/R1 flows through R2, causing a voltage drop, so V(out) = -R2/R1*V(in). Operational Amplifiers. Is that working Hello guys, I am wondering why the simulation of the scheme attached is working . The output should be directly proportional to the input. Although the guts of an op amp can contain 20 transistors or more, this model mimics only the higher level (or macro) functions of the device. Video description ; Welcome to Unboxing Simulator! ? -⚔️Go on a box smashing adventure PySpice is a free and open source (*) Python module which interface Python to the Ngspice and Xyce circuit simulators. It has two inputs, which you can control using the sliders on the right. For your ease, various circuit designs have been pre-loaded here, such as: LCR, Voltage divider, Filter circuits, Op-Amp circuits, Timer circuits, Transmission line circuits, and much more. • EX: Xopamp1 vin vref vdd gnd vout opamp741. You can control the + input using the slider on the right. Figure 3. Go ahead and turbo-charge some of the op amps by upping the Unity-Gain Frequency of the model and checking out its effect on the closed-loop bandwidth (with feedback components) of the amplifier. Electronic and Electric Circuit Simulation . Many times, the designer who has to operate a circuit from a single supply does not know how to do the conversion. 5V. TINA is a powerful circuit simulator for analog, digital, MCU and mixed circuit simulation with integrated PCB design, running both offline and online. The gain is determined by the ratio of two resistors. SampleCircuitHere Do you have the polarity of the LICOR correct? An ideal op amp could provide an infinite output voltage range. Solution. Amp Sims. However, this will also not work. Simulation Speed This is a simple demonstration of negative feedback using an op-amp. This simulation software is considered as one of the best freeware available. The differential amplifier was explained in different articles on this website. Gain = R f /R in. • element line description. 2 to 33 kΩ and re-running the simulation shows us that the uA741 model does incorporate power supply clipping in its mathematical description. A very good op amp could provide outputs at least up to the power supply voltages. Connect the feedback from the output back to the (-) input instead of the (+). Op-amp circuit analysis using a transfer function. (c)CircuitforExample3. Example 1 Simulation of the CMOS Op Amp of Ex. For an inverting op amp configuration, this loop gain is a factor called beta (β), defined in Figure 3, multiplied by -A OL. It does not explain how to use the circuit simulator but will give the user a better understanding how the model behaves and tips on convergence issues. (2. This is a simple demonstration of an op-amp. V2 and V3 are made zero, by connecting R2 and R3 to ground (Figure 3). 0 Op-Amp Integrators Objectives 1. All you need to define are the input range, the output range and a choice of voltage reference. How to Build a Voltage Amplifier Circuit with a Op-Amp Today, I have decided to share my experience on how to design a voltage amplifier circuit for a given specification. An inverting amplifier inverts and amplifies the input signal. Design Center; CMOS Single Supply RRIO Op Amp with ±250 mA Output Current and Shutdown Mode: OP AMP CIRCUITS. Cut-off frequency (Fc): Resistor value (R1 First we must select the key component of our circuit, the op amp. Members: Cole Andrew, Frederick Ngoiya, Diego Serrano Reinel----- Double-click on the op amp (U1) to open its Properties dialog. This op amp model is used inside op amp circuits in this site: Inverting Amplifier, Non-Inverting Amplifier, etc. Sponsored By. 1-2 and 3. op amp simulator

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